Correct ventilation of the cellar under the house, the organization of natural and forced exhaust

Correct ventilation of the cellar under the house, the organization of natural and forced exhaust

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Under many private houses there are cellars in which various food products are well preserved and do not deteriorate.

However, there are no windows in these rooms, as a result of which there is no normal ventilation.

In order for the ventilation of the cellar under the house to be of high quality, and fungi and mold do not start, it is important to provide a sufficient supply of fresh air.


  • Cellar ventilation device under the house, optimal microclimate parameters
  • Types of air exchange systems
  • Do-it-yourself ventilation of the cellar under the house from sewer pipes
  • Pipes of what diameter can be used
  • How to organize the ventilation of the cellar in the summer
  • Features of ventilation of the cellar in the garage

Cellar ventilation device under the house, optimal microclimate parameters

So that the food in the cellar does not deteriorate, this room is properly ventilated, it is important to observe certain conditions to maintain an optimal microclimate:

  • natural light from the street should not penetrate into the cellar. There should not be windows in it, it is allowed to turn on an electric lamp from time to time;
  • it is important to arrange a suitable temperature. In order for the temperature regime to be favorable, one of the basement walls must be in contact with the outer wall of the building;
  • the humidity in the room should not exceed the maximum permissible norm. Experts advise to monitor the humidity level so that it does not exceed 90 percent. This indicator depends on the ventilation system;
  • create ventilation in such a way that it maintains normal air exchange year-round;
  • take care of sufficient waterproofing, thanks to which groundwater will not enter the basement.

The ventilation system can be organized in various ways, for example, ventilation is forced and natural.

Regardless of which ventilation method is chosen, the following types of pipes will be required for the correct organization of the system:

  • supply. Through this pipe, fresh air from the street enters the basement;
  • exhaust. This pipe is needed to remove internal air from the basement to the street.

Ventilation system design can be both simple and complex.

A complex system includes:

  • diffusers,
  • fans,
  • dampers,
  • deflectors, and other structural elements.

A protective canopy is installed on the exhaust pipe protruding above the ground or above the roof to prevent atmospheric precipitation from entering the ventilation system. In addition, the pipeline is protected with a suitable thermal insulation material.

Let's watch a video on how to make the correct ventilation of the cellar under the house with your own hands:

Types of air exchange systems


Natural ventilation is based on the operation of a physical law. Due to the temperature difference inside the basement and in the environment, air masses begin to move, as a result of which air exchange is constantly working.

The heated air that is inside the room always rises to the top of the cellar and goes out into the street through the chimney.

The outlet air is replaced by a cold mass of air coming from the environment through the supply pipe. Due to the fact that there are no windows or other openings in the cellar through which the air stream could penetrate, a constant air circulation is created.

To organize permanent ventilation of a closed-type basement, it must be equipped with two pipes - supply and exhaust.

To ensure proper temperature, sufficient heat exchange and air exchange, the supply and exhaust ventilation pipes are located as far apart as possible.

As a result, fresh air coming from the street travels the distance of the entire basement, as a result of which the cellar is well ventilated.

Natural ventilation works well in winter, as during cold weather the air temperature outside and in the basement is significantly different, and proper ventilation is provided.

However, in winter, it is important to ensure that the cellar does not freeze under the influence of chilled air, because this will lead to freezing of food. During severe frosts, it is necessary to cover the ventilation ducts to reduce the natural flow of air.


Forced ventilation has a structural similarity to natural ventilation, it includes the installation of supply and exhaust pipelines.

Forced ventilation differs in that the air through the pipes will not move naturally, but under the influence of fans.

Each forced system has its own device, fans of different capacities are used, it will depend on how intensively and quickly the air from the street will flow.

There is no need to purchase a very powerful fan in the cellar if only food is stored there. A high-power fan will be required if people will be in the basement for a long period, for example, it is planned to build a gym, workshop, bath room, etc.

One or two fans are installed in each pipe, whether it is supply or exhaust, so that the outside air enters at the required speed, and at the same time the dampness is removed from the basement.

In the summer, it is impossible to turn on such a ventilation system at full capacity, because under the influence of hot air, the cellar will heat up, and the products will begin to deteriorate.

Forced hoods using duct fans are divided into two types:

  • automatic. These systems work autonomously, by themselves, a person does not need to control their functioning. Such ventilation includes special temperature and humidity sensors, thanks to which the system, if necessary, turns on ventilation and turns off the fans when the air is completely replaced;
  • mechanical. Such hoods involve human intervention; he must periodically monitor the functioning of the system. The owner of the house himself will monitor the humidity and temperature in the cellar, and, if necessary, turn on and off the fans, as well as open and close the valves through which air is supplied to the room.

To reduce energy costs, it is important to install a diffuser at the end of the supply line.


This type of ventilation system is suitable for renovated insulated basements, in which people often live or even live. To organize a complex ventilation system, it is advisable to use the services of professional specialists.

They will carry out all the necessary calculations and select:

  • suitable air conditioner or split system,
  • filters for air purification,
  • automation system,
  • devices that humidify the air,
  • duct fans,
  • deflectors, anemostats, diffusers, and more.

Complex supply and exhaust systems, although they have many different advantages, however, they also have disadvantages, for example, a rather high price and installation complexity.

If the basement is planned to be made residential, then the installation of the ventilation system is planned during the planning and construction of the house, since it is rather difficult to organize high-quality ventilation for an already erected house.

Even a very powerful and complex supply and exhaust system will not give the desired result if the basement is damp and there is constantly high humidity in it. To avoid this, during the construction of the house, proper waterproofing of the basement must be organized.

Do-it-yourself ventilation of the cellar under the house from sewer pipes

To create a ventilation system, asbestos-cement, galvanized and plastic types of pipes are used. Plastic piping is used most often, since these pipes are perfectly smooth inside.

Due to this, air masses pass freely through such a pipeline.

Plastic is not susceptible to corrosion and rusting, does not need cleaning, the operating period of plastic air ducts is more than 20 years.

In addition, the cost of plastic is significantly less than the price of asbestos or galvanized pipelines, and the weight of plastic pipes is much less.

It is advisable to install pipes with your own hands in such a way that there are a minimum number of turns and bends. The best option is straight pipes that are as far apart as possible.

Most often, the supply pipe is mounted in one corner, and the exhaust pipe is installed in the other corner of the cellar. The chimney is located as close as possible to the ceiling, the higher its lower end is, the better the warm air from the cellar will be discharged outside.

It is advisable to place the lower end of the supply pipe above the cellar floor at a height of 20 to 50 cm. Experts recommend creating a ventilation system in such a way that the distance between the openings of the exhaust and supply pipes is at least one meter.

The upper end of the exhaust duct is positioned above the roof; it is recommended that the upper end of the chimney be 1.5 m above the roof ridge.

In order to avoid the accumulation of frost and condensate, the pipeline, which is located outside, must be insulated. It is advisable to close the inlet and outlet of each pipeline with a fine-mesh mesh, and ventilation deflectors are put on top of the pipes, thereby increasing the thrust.

To improve draft, the suction pipe located on the roof should be about a meter lower than the exhaust pipe, so that a sufficient pressure drop will be created.

Pipes of what diameter can be used

Many people ask themselves what section the sewer pipes should have in order for proper ventilation? Experts say that for high-quality ventilation of one square meter of the basement, the cross-section of the pipeline should be 26 square centimeters.

If the diameter of the pipeline is 1 cm, then its cross section is 13 square centimeters. Given this, anyone can calculate the required diameter of the pipeline using the formula: (Cellar area H 26) h 13. For example, if the basement area is 8 square meters, ventilation will require a pipe with a diameter of 16 centimeters.

To organize proper supply and exhaust ventilation, you need two pipes with the same diameter. It is allowed to mount a pipe with a diameter slightly larger than the cross-section of the supply pipe in order to accelerate the air discharged to the outside.

How to organize the ventilation of the cellar in the summer

In the summer, when it is hot outside, the natural type of ventilation works rather poorly, and slowly removes gases from the basement that have a greater mass than the air mass.

To create a sufficient air pressure, duct fans are inserted into the ventilation pipes, thereby organizing forced exhaust.

Axial fans can be mounted both on the supply and exhaust pipelines, or on both pipes at once.

However, if the humidity in the basement is extremely high, you should not install the fan on the pipe through which the air from the cellar goes outside, as this electrical device will quickly fail under the influence of moisture.

Let's watch a video about the features of the ventilation of the cellar in the summer:

Features of ventilation of the cellar in the garage

For garage basements, natural ventilation is often organized, since it is more accessible and less expensive. A natural hood is installed in the same way as for the cellar of the house.

Forced ventilation, although it costs significantly more, not only creates a suitable microclimate, but also the owner has the ability to regulate the level of humidity and temperature in the basement.

If the cellar is small under the garage, you can install only one fan, and with a large basement area, at least two fans are installed.

Forced ventilation is chosen by those owners in whose garages there are large trucks, minibuses, because such premises often contain many different chemicals, the smell from them must be removed from the premises all the time.

The forced draft is mounted as follows:

  • An exhaust pipeline is being installed. The lower part of this pipe should be located under the basement ceiling, and the upper part must be displayed higher than the garage roof.
  • The supply pipeline is being installed. It is important to choose a pipe diameter corresponding to the size of the room so that sufficient air enters the cellar. The lower part of the pipe is lowered into the cellar so that there is a distance of about half a meter from it to the floor.
  • A fan is installed. This device is securely fixed in the supply pipe; if necessary, a second fan is mounted in the exhaust pipe.
  • Electrical work is underway. An electrical wire is connected to the installed fan, on which a switch is placed. The cable connects to the electrical system of the garage.
  • Protective elements are mounted. Meshes with small cells are fixed to the supply and exhaust pipes so that insects cannot enter the air duct. And on top of the pipes located above the roof, visors are installed so that precipitation does not enter the system.

So, thanks to the installation of a ventilation system, stale air and dampness can be removed from the cellar, and food can be protected from damage.

The tips in this article will help you organize the supply and exhaust ventilation in the basement correctly.

Watch the video: About Your Condo - Air Flow and Ventilation (August 2022).