We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Depleted land cannot yield much harvest. Various means are used to restore its fertility.
Rotted manure is considered the best and safest, what it is, how to store and use organic matter, what nutrients it contains, how it can be dangerous - we will analyze these other issues for use in agriculture in this article.
- Manure types
- What determines the composition, what nutrients are contained
- How to accelerate the decay of manure, how to make it quickly pererelya
- What is semi-rotten manure, the rules for its use
- Rotten manure, what is it, for what purpose it is used
- Do I need to cover with a film during maturation and storage
- How to fertilize, rules and terms of application to the soil
- The use of humus at their summer cottage
- How to use dry cow dung
- What is the danger of manure applied in exorbitantly large quantities
Distinguish by its manufacturer:
- the most useful horse,
- the most popular cow,
- aggressive pork,
- rabbit, sheep,
- as well as bird droppings.
The degree of decomposition also affects the classification.
Once obtained, the organic mixture is considered:
- fresh - up to 3 months;
- half-over-mature - after six months of lying;
- rotted - after a year of aging in special conditions;
- in a state of humus - after 2 years of aging.
Horse manure is considered the most valuable in terms of nutrient content, but it is not widely used due to the decrease in the number of horses on farms.
Cow faeces have a less useful composition. Therefore, they need to be fertilized in increased volumes.
Pork is very caustic and should only be used in a completely decomposed state and in small doses.
What determines the composition, what nutrients are contained
The composition of manure directly depends on the conditions of keeping, nutrition and the type of animal producing it:
- if the animals ate predominantly concentrated feed, then high-nitrogen droppings would result;
- roughage consumed by ruminant livestock provides a large amount of potassium.
Comparing favorably with the mineral inorganic fertilizers offered by the chemical industry, containing 2 - 3 useful substances, the waste products of animals are filled with a full spectrum of elements necessary for plant growth and nutrition: K - potassium, P - phosphorus, N - nitrogen, Mg - magnesium, Cu - copper , Ca - calcium, Mn - manganese, B - boron, Co - cobalt and many others.
The quantitative ratio of substances is exactly what the plants need.
Active substances from rotted manure are able to saturate the soil and nourish it for 3-5 years after the moment of feeding.
You can find out even more useful information about what rotted manure is by watching the video:
How to accelerate decay, how to make it quickly pererelya
With all its positive properties, manure has a tangible minus - it ripens for a long time. To get a safe rotted product, you need to wait a year or more.
The chemical industry offers special agents - enzymes that accelerate the maturation of compost. They contain only biological natural ingredients, they are easy to use and begin to act instantly, accelerating the decomposition process.
If you do not use special enzymes to quickly heat the organic matter, you can speed up the process a little by creating special conditions for the manure heap:
- hide from direct sunlight;
- give a clear grouped shape;
- Dig up the upper part of the heap several times a week, breaking up clods;
- harrow the deeper part;
- in drought, moisten the top layer.
In such conditions, after a couple of months, you can remove and use the top rotted layer for its intended purpose.
What is semi-rotten manure, the rules for its use
The stage of decomposition of biological excrement that has lain in the air for more than 3 months is called semi-rotten. The mass contains completely decomposed parts and partially preserved lumps of biomass.
During this time, the straw litter decays almost completely and takes on a dark brown color. It can still be distinguished by visual inspection, but when taken in hand, it easily crumbles and sprinkles.
Semi-matured - less aggressive in comparison with fresh livestock waste. It can be used as a main fertilizer in a diluted form. Most often, it fits on poor soils for digging in the autumn.
By the spring harvest, he manages to completely overheat and enrich the land before sowing.
Crops suitable for feeding with this fertilizer are courgettes, cabbage, cucumbers and spinach. A year after the soil is ground with a semi-rotten product, potatoes, tomatoes, roots and strawberries can be planted in this place.
Let's watch a useful video about the rules for applying manure and humus:
Rotten manure, what is it, for what purpose it is used
An organic fertilizer that has withstood the fermentation process for a year looks like a homogeneous mass interspersed with black straws that easily crumble when rubbed.
The color of the rotted product is black or dark brown. This stage of organic maturation is one of the most valuable in terms of nutrient saturation and safety for plant roots.
Well-rotted organic matter is suitable for plant nutrition, soil nutrition. Also, this mixture is suitable for the production of nutrient substrate for spring seedlings in the ratio of one part of manure to two parts of land.
Do I need to cover a pile with a film during maturation and storage
During the natural fermentation of feces, heat and gases are released. If the goal is to get a rotten product as soon as possible, then you should not cover the pile. On the contrary, it needs to be loosened and agitated as often as possible.
In this case, with free access of oxygen, the decomposition processes will go faster and the fertilizer can be applied in 2-3 months.
The foil and dense layer of styling prevent nitrogen evaporation. If the goal is the quality of organics, and not speed, then it is necessary to limit the access of oxygen to the fertilizer. To do this, manure is laid in layers in a pit or a heap is formed, tightly tamping each layer.
The upper part must be covered with foil. Thus, a greenhouse effect with high temperatures is created inside the heap, which destroys all microorganisms and bacteria, larvae and eggs of helminths.
How to fertilize with manure, rules and terms of application to the soil
Fresh organic matter can only be used as biofuel or liquid fertilizer in a diluted 1:10 form. Direct contact with plants should be excluded, since a high nitrogen content is fraught with chemical burns on the roots and stems of plants.
Semi-overripe can be laid during the spring digging of the earth or used in a diluted form for nutritious irrigation.
Fermented organic matter more than a year old is used as a root fertilizer.
Humus over 5 years old is similar to black soil, it is used as an independent fertile soil. The concentration of nutrients in it is significantly reduced in comparison with the 2-year-old rotted one.
The most effective is the fertilization of the soil with one-year-old horse manure, carried out on the same day with the digging of the site. Fresh horse droppings can be introduced for digging poor soils in the fall in the amount of 5-6 kg per 1 sq. M.
The use of humus at their summer cottage
Completely fermented manure is transformed into humus. The black friable substance is filled with trace elements and is able to turn a barren area into a real oasis in one or two seasons. Its nutritional ingredients are suitable for all horticultural crops of Central Russia.
The exceptions are plants accustomed to poor soils: orchids, cacti, landscape plants for alpine slides.
To nourish the soil and increase its fertility, completely rotted manure, mixed with plant organic matter, is distributed on the dug soil at the beginning of spring work or during the autumn preparation of the site for wintering.
The recommended consumption is a bucket of humus per 1 sq. M. Earth. Under cucumbers and pumpkins, well-rotted organic matter is also laid in the spring to a 15-centimeter depth.
Spring feeding of plantings of flowers, berries and vegetables requires 3-4 buckets per 1 sq. M.
In summer, dissolved humus is used as a nutritious dressing for root and foliar action. The compost is placed in a five centimeter layer under the strawberries after harvest. The humus must be separated from the plants with sawdust or straw mulch.
Raspberries receive humus as a 5 cm thick mulch.
The soil under the greenhouses should receive compost fertilizers in the spring.
How to use dry cow dung
Dried under the open sky, the waste product of ruminants - cows and bulls - retains all the trace elements and minerals contained in fresh cow excrement.
This type of organic is considered an effective and valuable fertilizer due to the following properties:
- suitable for all types of plants, except for onions and carrots;
- in flower beds, the surface of the soil is covered with dry cakes as mulch;
- easily mixes up with any other components, dissolves, crumbles;
- reliable soil protection, prevents weed growth.
Dry mullein is also used for feeding all types of plants in the summer by watering mullein substrate mixed with water in the root area and spraying with a weakly concentrated solution of manure of weakened plants.
What is the danger of manure applied in exorbitantly large quantities
Manure requires compliance with the rules for its use. In the case of uncontrolled use according to the principle "the more the better", it is able not only to reduce the yield, but also to leave the site in the most deplorable state, destroying all the vegetation on it.
So, we remember the rules for introducing manure into the soil:
- Let's say no to fresh produce. Decay processes take place at elevated temperatures, rising to +80 degrees. Such warmth can simply burn off fertilized plant roots. If you still can't wait to give bait, the most gentle way to treat the plants is to water with a solution of 1 part manure to 10 parts water.
- If freshly obtained organic matter is used by a gardener as a bio-source of heat for a greenhouse or a "warm bed", then you need to deoxidize the soil with slaked lime or ash. Fresh produce greatly increases the acid level of the ground, which can negatively affect the growth and taste of the crop.
- Over-saturation of the soil with humus or rotted manure leads to an increased level of nitrates in the crop.
- Fecal matter contains: helminth larvae, weed seeds, pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms. After 2 years of overheating, almost all living organisms die, and the remaining biomass will only be beneficial.
Based on the knowledge of experienced gardeners, purchasing high-quality manure in proven places and fermenting it correctly, you can get an excellent result on your site in the form of lush vegetation and a rich harvest.