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White bloom on a houseplant or on potted soil is a headache for a grower and a consequence of his mistakes in caring for a pet. As a result of violation of agricultural technology, favorable conditions are created for the spread of diseases and the reproduction of insect pests. Treatment tactics depend on correct recognition of the causes of this phenomenon.
- White spots: where are they from?
- Types of fungal diseases
- Treating fungal infections
- Preventive measures
White spots: where are they from?
The reasons for the appearance of white spots on home plants can be:
- defeat by a pest - mealybug
- fungal diseases - powdery mildew, downy mildew, white rot, mold
Mealybugs are sucking insects that leave sticky drops and white discharge that resemble cotton balls on the leaves. You can clean the leaves from them with a disc moistened with alcohol or soapy water. The plants are then sprayed with insecticides, which are widely available on the market.
Following the instructions, the drugs will have to be used repeatedly until the worms are completely destroyed. Important. A diseased plant must always be quarantined immediately.
Fungal lesions are promoted by increased room humidity, sudden temperature changes, overcrowding of plants and their weakened state. An excess of nitrogen fertilizers and a lack of calcium in combination with inappropriate conditions of detention also provoke the development of fungal infections. Fungal diseases are highly contagious: spores are carried with the ground, through the air with dust, with new plants. Saintpaulias, begonias, chrysanthemums, hydrangeas are most susceptible to fungal infections.
Types of fungal diseases
Diseases that appear on plants with white spots are caused by various types of fungi.
- Powdery mildew. This is a rapidly spreading fungal infection of indoor plants. The leaves quickly become covered with white powdery spots - mycelium, which is easily peeled off. Then white bloom captures other parts of the plant. The spots increase, become "felt" and acquire a brown color. Infected leaves wither and fall off, shoots do not develop, the plant is inhibited.
- Downy mildew. It differs from the real one in that the plaque first appears on the underside of the leaf blades, then turns brown. White rot. A white rot fungus infects the stem through the soil. The lower leaves lose their natural color and become covered with white fragments, the top of the plant withers.
White mold caused by the development of fungal microflora due to waterlogging of the soil can appear right on its surface. White mold stains should be distinguished from salt stains on the ground, caused by a chemical reaction and associated with the composition of the water used for irrigation. Mold islands give a specific rotten smell and are easily rubbed in the hands.
Treating fungal infections
Fight against fungal infections must be started immediately, otherwise the plant will undergo a decay process and die. First of all, the microclimatic conditions of the room must be brought in line with those required for a given plant. And immediately start treatment. There are many popular recipes for fighting fungi that are safe for humans. Here is some of them:
- soap-soda solution: for 10 liters of water, take 50 grams of soda (soda ash or food grade) and 20 grams of laundry soap. Treat the plant, repeat after a week
- potassium permanganate solution: dissolve 5 g of potassium permanganate in 10 liters of water
- mustard solution: dilute 2 tablespoons of mustard powder in 10 liters of warm water
The prepared solutions first wash all the leaves and stems of the "patient", then spray him. In advanced cases, one cannot do without the use of industrial fungicidal preparations: foundationol, topaz, previkura, vitaros and others. Spraying is carried out following the instructions of the selected product.
If you find white spots of mold on the ground, you must:
- remove the top contaminated soil layer
- spill the lower layers of the soil with a solution of citric acid at the rate of half a teaspoon of acid in one glass of water
The acidic environment has a detrimental effect on the fungus, prevents its reproduction. After two weeks, re-watering is done. New healthy soil is poured on top with pieces of charcoal. A more reliable way to get rid of the fungus is to transplant the plant into another pot with a complete replacement of the soil. The contaminated soil can not be thrown away, but disinfected in another container by pouring boiling water over it and calcining it in the oven.
The well-known rule - it is easier to prevent a disease than to cure - applies to all living things, including indoor flowers. In order not to miss the moment of infection, it is enough to follow simple measures:
- regular inspections of plants for spots and pests
- cleaning leaves from dust
- pruning, removing old leaves in contact with the ground
- creation of optimal conditions for each species, taking into account illumination, humidity, temperature and feeding
The vigilant attention of the grower to his pets, his observance of agricultural technology and conditions of detention, as well as ambulance if necessary - these are the main components of the health and well-groomed type of indoor plants.
Video on ways to combat powdery mildew: