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Not everyone is familiar with such a garden plant as fennel. The full name of the culture is ordinary fennel, the popular name is pharmaceutical dill or Voloshsky dill. The upper leaves of fennel are similar to those of dill, but they are located at the top, which is formed by the extended bases of the leaves that encircle the stem. In the vegetable variety of fennel, this part looks like a layered onion or head of cabbage. Fennel is used as a vegetable in many countries:
- Of Italy
What is fennel, growing it in the garden on your own.
- Choosing a location for fennel
- How to plant different types of fennel
- Fennel Care and Harvesting
Choosing a location for fennel
When deciding to plant fennel on the site, it is important to remember that there is another variety of this plant - vegetable fennel or Italian fennel. Most often, it is grown in regions with a mild climate:
in southern Europe
in north africa
in New Zealand
in central America
In South America
In temperate climates, the place for him should be chosen taking into account the fact that he prefers sunny places with moderate humidity. The plant is light-loving, you need to choose places well-lit by the sun. We tolerate fennel and partial shade.
Light, moderately fertile soils are suitable for growing all varieties of fennel. If the land is poor, then organic and inorganic substances will need to be added before planting fennel. Enough 10 kg of humus per square meter. meter, a can of sawdust with a capacity of 2 liters and a couple of tablespoons of phosphorus fertilizer.
Fennel is a fairly thermophilic plant. In order for the head of cabbage to be formed, in the first weeks after planting in the ground, it is necessary to ensure a temperature of at least + 10. You may have to cover the seedlings with a film for this. The culture is responsive to moderate watering. However, do not overfill the plantings with water. This will lead to rotting of the plant root system.
How to plant different types of fennel
When it comes to growing common fennel to obtain fragrant greens and seeds, then you can sow it directly into the ground. This can be done in the spring in the second half of April and in May. To preserve heat and moisture, the bed is covered with foil. Shoots appear in about 10 - 12 days. You can sow fennel in the fall in September.
To grow vegetable fennel for the sake of delicious light heads of cabbage, you will first have to sow seeds for seedlings. This must be done in March - early April. The primer is suitable for universal use, with neutral or low acidity. Two parts of soil can be mixed with one part of perlite. As they grow, fennel seedlings can be planted in individual pots.
You can also plant two seeds at once in one individual pot. When the seedling of fennel reaches 7 - 10 cm, it can be taken out into the open air for hardening.
After the threat of late frosts has passed, the seedlings are transplanted to a prepared bed. By this time, the seedlings should be 45 - 50 days old. The distance between the bushes is 0.4 m. During the cultivation of fennel, it is important to provide it with sufficient watering, loosening, and weed removal. It is important to know that it is better to allocate a separate area for fennel, since it has a depressing effect on a number of crops. To get juicy heads of cabbage, fennel must be grown according to certain agricultural techniques.
Fennel care and harvest
Growing fennel for the sake of greens and seeds does not require special care. It is enough to thin out the plantings in a timely manner, provide them with watering and regular removal of weeds. This plant is almost not damaged by pests. If aphids attack the fennel, then it is enough to spray it with a solution of green soap.
But to form tender heads of cabbage, you need to take special measures. To stimulate the formation of a head of cabbage, the plant must be spud high enough. This technique will protect against damage to the base of the leaves, which grow and form the same head of cabbage. In addition, when covered by the ground, the head of cabbage retains a white or light green color. This technique is called whitening.
However, with such hilling, there is a threat of strong soil contamination of the edible part. Some gardeners put a high ring on the lower part of the stem before hilling. It is cut from a plastic bottle of a suitable diameter. Any cultivation process ends with harvesting. You can harvest herbs in small batches throughout the season. It is enough to cut off several branches from each plant.
Heads of cabbage are harvested in September. Before cutting it, the top leaves are removed first. The head of cabbage itself is cut off the ground. Store in a cool place. And although fennel is not very afraid of the first frosts, you should not wait with harvesting, otherwise the heads of cabbage will begin to taste bitter. Fennel seeds are used in cooking and medicine. To collect the seeds, you need to wait for them to ripen.
Then, without cutting off the umbrella from the plant, bring a bowl and shake the umbrella with seeds over it strongly. You can tie them with gauze in advance and cut off after the seeds are fully ripe. It should be said that in addition to being used for food, fennel also has a decorative value. Its tall openwork bushes are in good harmony in the garden with many plants, even with such as a rose.
Video about the beneficial properties of fennel: