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Almost all climatic conditions are suitable for growing potatoes. But we must not forget that there are potato diseases, and the fight against them is often difficult. Therefore, you need to know how to provide assistance to this culture.
- Wireworm and late blight
- Rhizoctonia and black leg
- Common scab
- Macrosporiasis and ring rot
Wireworm and late blight
Potatoes can be attacked by a small gray insect called a wireworm. It is the larva of a click beetle. One female lays a huge number of eggs. The result is a wireworm that can destroy the entire crop. For this reason, gardeners should create protection from the beetle itself. To combat the pest, you can use the following methods:
The potatoes are peeled, strung on a stick, and then immersed in the ground. It is recommended to bury more than one of these potatoes. The larvae will gather on this particular bait.
Dig out the potatoes after 4 days. You can kill pests with boiling water or fire. When a crop is planted, it is necessary to pour sunflower oil with egg shells into the soil, which is finely crushed. Such a mixture will quickly destroy the wireworm, it will not have time to get to the harvest yet. This solution fights various pests. A few weeks before planting the potatoes, the corn grains should be buried in the ground. The wireworm will be enticed by the seeds. When the corn sprouts appear, you need to dig up the plants. All larvae are selected and destroyed by boiling water or fire.
As for late blight, it is also called late blight. Tomatoes and potatoes suffer from this disease. The disease can affect the entire field in just a few weeks. As a result, the gardener loses most of his harvest. Late blight occurs due to fungal spores, so it can infect a large number of tubers in a short time, as it moves under the ground. Initially, the disease is accompanied by darkening of the foliage. On the inside of the leaves, a white bloom appears. This suggests that the spores of the fungus are beginning to germinate. After a while, they fall to the ground and begin to infect the root system. Further, brown spots will appear on the tubers.
This dangerous mushroom must be destroyed. To do this, you should adhere to the following rules:
- It is recommended to grow potato varieties that are resistant to late blight.
- For planting, you need to use only good planting material.
- It is recommended to treat tubers with fungicidal preparations.
- The culture needs systematic hilling.
- Apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
- Spray with a mixture of copper sulfate.
- The tops should be removed before harvesting.
Rhizoctonia and black leg
This disease is especially susceptible to potatoes in wet weather. On the sprouts that appear, brown ulcers develop. This leads to the fact that they turn black and die. The disease is provoked by a fungus that survives the winter in the soil. It resembles bumps that look like ground. Not only the sprouts suffer from rhizoctonia, but also the adult plants. They develop brown ulcers on their neck. This leads to the fact that the plant withers, foliage curls, and the stem dies off. This wilting can be seen in dry weather. Eventually the roots will begin to die off. This disease should also be fought. Often, Rhiztoniasis appears only in weak plants. For this reason, it is recommended to do everything so that the seedlings develop well and gain strength.
It is a bacterial disease. It begins its development after a while, when shoots have appeared. The foliage takes on a yellow tint, curls up, dries. Further decay of the rhizome occurs, the stem often turns black. In such a situation, the plant is easily pulled out of the ground. The tubers become infected, their pulp turns into mucus, and smells unpleasant.
If the soil is poorly moistened, and the weather is warm, the possible suspension of the development of the disease. From this, all signs of the disease disappear. But the plants remain infected, which will manifest over time. The infection remains in the beds that have been poorly cleaned. Blackleg disease must be fought. To do this, before leaving the crop in the fall for storage for planting, it should be sprayed with a fungicide solution, and then dry well.
The plant that is sick must be eliminated from the soil, and the hole is treated with a mixture of ash and copper sulfate. In addition, you can use the processing of plants with chalk, crushed charcoal. To combat the disease, you need to adhere to the sowing rules. Choose healthy tubers for planting. As soon as signs of the disease have been noticed, the infected bush must be removed. But this must be done carefully so that the disease does not spread to neighboring plants.
Many people who grow potatoes have encountered this disease. Its development takes place on the surface of the tubers. The disease manifests itself in the form of ulcers, which differ in shape and size. From this, the potato loses its presentation, becomes not so tasty. To fight scab, prevention should be carried out. To do this, you need to adhere to the following rules:
- Potatoes are planted in a crop rotation
- Only healthy tubers are used for planting
- Cultivars are used that are resistant to scab
Gardeners need to pay attention to the manure that is applied under the potatoes. It shouldn't be rotten. Also, don't add too much lime.
Macrosporiasis and ring rot
This disease manifests itself at the end of June, and its development occurs throughout the summer. It provokes the appearance of dark brown spots that are round in shape. In the place where the defeat occurred, the leaf dies off, this results in holes in the foliage. To protect potatoes from this disease, the owners carefully collect the remains of the plants after harvest. As soon as the first signs of macrosporiosis appear, it is recommended to spray the potatoes with Bordeaux liquid. If the planting takes place on peat soils, then potash fertilizers should be added to it.
Ring rot is a common condition. It provokes the death of the plant, and the tubers begin to rot when they are left for storage. This disease can be seen during the flowering period. Initially, several stems die, and then all the others wither. They fall to the ground, inside they can often be filled with yellow mucus. Gradually, the disease affects the tubers. Dark spots may appear on their surface. Under the skin itself, the pulp becomes too soft.
This disease is easily transmitted from tuber to plant, so the affected potatoes are not used for planting. The soil is not a carrier of the disease. But the disease can manifest itself in the process of cutting potatoes, so cutting tools should be processed. To protect potatoes from disease, only healthy potatoes are planted. A diseased plant must be removed, knives must be handled well. So there are many potato diseases. But they can be eliminated if the bush is damaged in time.
Video about potato diseases: