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Pruning is one of the most important and responsible procedures in the process of caring for fruit trees. Pruning trees will be really effective only if, in addition, proper soil care is carried out, as well as a number of appropriate measures to combat tree pests and various diseases.
- What is fruit tree pruning for?
- What are the rules for pruning garden trees?
- Types of pruning
- Pruning tools
What is fruit tree pruning for?
The purpose of pruning fruit trees is to form them correctly, to regulate the growth of the tree. All this also affects the quality of the fruit, if dry and broken branches are regularly removed, then the fruiting of the tree will significantly improve.
The main regulator of the level of tree growth and its fruiting is pruning, but in addition to this, measures such as twisting and tying branches can be used.
Pruning is necessary so that the tree grows to a certain length that will be optimal for a given tree and specific conditions. For example, you must always ensure that the trunk is strong and strong, capable of withstanding heavy loads (fruit weight).
In the event that pruning was carried out without observing the basic rules, it can lead to the fact that the crown of the tree begins to actively thicken - and this is a negative factor for fruit trees. Before starting pruning, it is necessary to study all the information regarding a particular tree, since each variety and type has its own characteristics that must be taken into account when caring for a fruitful tree.
What are the rules for pruning garden trees?
The rules for pruning fruit trees must be taken into account in full, since they allow you to correctly carry out this procedure, which will have a positive effect on the further development and fruiting of the tree. Basic Rules:
- Young trees should not be heavily pruned, as this will slow down the process of their onset of fruiting.
- In order to create a solid skeleton, it is necessary to rid the tree of the so-called "competitors". For example, if a branch appears that in the future wants to take the place of the top, you need to get rid of it.
- If the annual growth is small, then the tree needs to be pruned more. Strong growth - if the shoot grows 0.7 - 1 meter in one year, the average growth is from 0.3 to 0.7 m, and a small increase is less than 0.3 meters.
- It will be more effective to get rid of one large branch than from a large number of small and thin branches.
- If you are pruning a branch, you need to think ahead about which branch will replace it in the future.
- If a branch was cut, the diameter of which exceeds 1 cm, then after cutting it must be covered with a special decoction, which will accelerate the process of tissue regeneration and the tree will heal faster. Do not use oil-based paints.
Fruit trees should be pruned regularly every year at a specific time frame. Each plant has its own most favorable period for pruning, so this factor should be taken into account.
Pruning in the summer is carried out in order to rid the tree of dry and broken branches, as well as branches that grow inside the crown.
The pruning of each fruit tree must be approached individually, since depending on the variety, some trees need more intensive pruning.
Types of pruning
Pruning for each gardener and for each tree pursues specific goals, therefore, today there are several main types of pruning of fruit-bearing trees:
- Formative. It is carried out in order to create a crown of a certain density for the tree, as well as to give the necessary silhouette. This pruning allows to increase the resistance of the wood skeleton to various types of loads. If this type of pruning is carried out in February, the tree will grow more intensively. If this procedure is carried out in the limit of silt in May, then the growth process, on the contrary, will be somewhat frozen.
- Regulatory. The purpose of pruning fruit-bearing trees is to preserve the previously formed crown type, in which there is a good level of illumination of the tree branches. Also, such pruning is necessary so that the skeletal part of the tree is not overloaded with a large number of young shoots. Regulatory pruning is done from February to March or August to September.
- Anti-aging. It is carried out on mature trees so that it can renew itself and the growth of new, young branches is activated. In order to awaken the dormant buds, it is necessary to cut off the branches, which grow by 10-15 cm per year. This procedure is carried out either in early spring or in early autumn.
- Recovery. It is carried out only if the fruitful tree has been seriously damaged for some reason. The measure is necessary so that the plant can develop, grow and bloom again.
- Sanitary. The procedure consists in removing diseased, dry or broken branches. Such circumcision should be performed throughout the year, not just during the spring or winter period. After the diseased branches have been removed, the cut site must be treated with alcohol, as well as the instrument itself. When carrying out sanitary pruning, it is necessary to take into account parameters such as the age and height of the tree, since intensive pruning can cause unwanted thickening of the crown of the tree.
In order for the process of pruning fruit-bearing trees to be effective. The gardener needs to stock up on a whole arsenal of tools necessary for this procedure:
- Pruner. The main requirements for this tool are simplicity and ease of use. Therefore, it is best to give your preference to a pruner that has a ratchet mechanism.
- Garden hacksaw. The teeth of this tool must be equipped with special spaces, due to which debris will not accumulate on the tool, slowing down the work with it.
- Air secateurs. The secateurs are attached to us with a special bar with a long leg. It is set in motion by special mechanisms and levers. This tool is used in cases where it is not possible for the gardener to reach the branches on his own.
It should be noted that the process of circumcision can only be carried out with the help of special garden tools. It is impossible to use construction hacksaws, scissors and other mechanisms, as they are intended for other work and can damage the tree.
The tools must be sharpened so that you can trim the branch the first time. If the diseased branches were cut off, the tool must be carefully processed afterwards, otherwise it can lead to infection and death of the entire fruitful tree.
Pruning is a rather complex process that requires special skills and knowledge of the individual characteristics of each fruitful tree that will be pruned.
Tree Pruning Tutorial Video: