We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
From time immemorial, the porcini mushroom has been a real delicacy. Currently, porcini mushrooms can be seen at the tables in rather rare cases, since it is quite expensive to purchase this product, and it is very difficult to find it in the forest at the present time.
But today there is a great opportunity for gardeners to grow porcini mushrooms on their own in their backyard and collect a rich mushroom harvest. To do this, you will need two things - a garden plot with a greenhouse, as well as an ardent desire to grow amazing porcini mushrooms.
- Greenhouse preparation
- How to prepare the beds for porcini mushrooms?
- Growing from mycelium
- Growing up from spores
Before you start growing any kind of mushrooms at home, first of all, you need to prepare a greenhouse for this process. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account all the features of each cultivated mushroom species. The cultivation of porcini mushrooms in the greenhouse can be carried out of the glass type or film.
The main feature of the greenhouse is minimal illumination, and direct sunlight should not get inside at all. Many people generally create mushroom greenhouses in the basement, as this is the ideal place for a good mushroom harvest.
If your site already has a greenhouse where you actively grow fruits and vegetables, you can also use it to grow mushrooms. For this, it will only be necessary to create a small area in the greenhouse, which will be completely sheltered from sunlight with the help of dark agrofibre. A dark place is an ideal habitat for mushrooms, in which they will feel as comfortable as possible.
The second parameter, after light, to which you need to pay attention is the humidity level in the greenhouse. It is humidity that is the determining parameter in the process of growing mushrooms in a greenhouse. Any mushrooms, regardless of the species, will grow really well only in places with high levels of humidity. In order to ensure the highest possible humidity level in a small mushroom greenhouse, it is necessary to regularly spray the area with a spray bottle.
Sawdust favorably affects the general environment in the greenhouse and the development of mushrooms, therefore, it is desirable that they be present in a small amount in the greenhouse. They will also need to be moistened regularly. The peculiarity of sawdust is that they can store moisture in themselves for a long time, thus constantly maintaining high humidity in the greenhouse.
In order to be sure that the greenhouse with mushrooms is really well moistened, it is necessary to put small containers of water every 1.5 meters. Such a measure will ensure a high level of humidity in the mushroom greenhouse. But humidity will have a really positive effect on the growth and development of fungi only if there is constant air circulation in the greenhouse. Therefore, it is necessary to either ventilate the greenhouse or create ventilation in it.
How to prepare the beds for porcini mushrooms?
Growing porcini mushrooms at home, in addition to a pre-prepared greenhouse, also requires prepared soil. Therefore, the preparatory process itself takes a lot of time, effort and energy.
A specific substrate is prepared for the porcini mushroom, which depends on which tree the mycelium was found under. That is, if you use material taken from the forest for further seedling and growing greenhouse mushrooms, then along with the mushroom you will need to take a small amount of soil in which it previously grew and developed.
The soil from the garden and the soil from the forest should now be thoroughly mixed. Sawdust of any type and a small amount of manure are added to the resulting soil composition. The resulting mixture is infused for a week, after which it is transferred to a wooden box, which is already moving to a mushroom greenhouse.
It is worth noting immediately the fact that the porcini mushroom is a rather whimsical plant, so if the mycelium not only in the first months, but also in the first year does not give any harvest, do not panic, in some cases small mushrooms appeared almost after a year of waiting. Therefore, do not give up, but regularly maintain the most favorable conditions in the greenhouse.
Growing from mycelium
Porcini mushrooms can be grown on the basis of a nutrient mixture, which serves as the basis for the reproduction and development of the mycelium and the subsequent reproduction of the mushrooms themselves. This technology involves the use of either ready-made compost mycelium or seeds. Many mushroom growers who grow mushrooms in home greenhouses use this particular method of growing porcini mushrooms.
The step-by-step process for growing mycelium-based mushrooms is as follows:
- The mycelium of the porcini mushroom can be purchased ready-made, which will greatly facilitate the growing process.
- It is necessary to prepare a site for porcini mushrooms from the end of May to the end of October. A small bare area is formed around the tree trunk, the diameter of which is 1-1.5 m, about 20 centimeters of the upper soil must be removed from this area.
- On the resulting empty space, it is necessary to lay compost or peat-type soil, the thickness of which is 2-3 cm.
- On this soil, the mycelium of the porcini mushroom is laid out, which is divided into small pieces. You need to spread it in a checkerboard pattern. One package of mycelium per tree.
- Now the mycelium is covered with the layer that was originally removed. Then the planting must be thoroughly watered, on one tree 2-3 buckets of water.
- The finished planting is covered with straw for 30-40 centimeters. This is necessary in order to always maintain a humidity of at least 40%.
- As it drips, the planting should be watered abundantly with water.
If the planting was prepared in the autumn, then it is necessary to additionally cover it with moss and straw for the winter. In the spring, in mid-May, the mycelium is removed and placed in boxes, then transferred to the greenhouse, where the growth of mushrooms continues.
Growing up from spores
Cultivation of porcini mushrooms in a greenhouse can also be carried out with the use of spores. To do this, you will have to go to the forest for biological material. It is necessary to collect an average of 5-10 mushrooms with caps fully ripe.
When the cap breaks, its flesh should be green in color. If there are larvae in the pulp of the mushroom, then this is quite normal. Sort the mushrooms into different bags, depending on which tree you found it under.
At home, it will be necessary to separate the caps and legs of the mushroom from each other. All mature mushroom caps will need to be soaked in water in a bucket for a day, preferably using rainwater. It is not advisable to leave the mushrooms after harvesting, as soon as they are harvested, it is worth soaking them immediately upon returning home, since they have a short shelf life. Add 15 g of sugar per 10 liters of water to the soaked water.
At the end of the day, the mushrooms are ground together with water until a homogeneous mass is obtained. To remove residual water, the mixture is filtered through cheesecloth. The result is a pulp that remains on the tissue and water with spores - neither one nor the other should be thrown away.
In the soil, which will be fertilized with compost in advance, it is necessary to put the resulting pulp of the mushrooms, cover it with a layer of peat soil and pour the solution with spores. Water all this and place in the greenhouse. Soon the mushrooms should give their first "fruits".
Cultivation of porcini mushrooms is a rather complicated and time-consuming process that requires not only time and effort, but also some skills that relate to the equipment of the greenhouse and the process of planting mushrooms. Maintaining favorable conditions in a mushroom greenhouse is 80% the key to success. During the season, you can collect more than one bucket of porcini mushrooms, which will be an excellent treat for yourself and your guests.
Video guide to growing mushrooms in a greenhouse: